Dryopteris fusco-atra

leaf Main Plant Information






  • fusco-atra
  • lamoureuxii

Hawaiian Names with Diacritics

  • ʻIʻi

Hawaiian Names

  • Ii

Common Names

  • Crowned woodfern


  • Aspidium filix-mas var. fusco-atrum

leaf Plant Characteristics

Distribution Status


Endangered Species Status

No Status

Plant Form / Growth Habit

  • Non-Woody, Clumping

Mature Size, Height (in feet)

  • Shrub, Small, 2 to 6

Mature Size, Width

 2 or more feet.

Life Span

Long lived (Greater than 5 years)

Landscape Uses

  • Accent
  • Container

Additional Landscape Use Information

This wonderful fern is seldom seen in landscaping, likely due to lack of availability. The plants seem to be adaptable to a variety moisture requirements and may even be considered for xeric landscapes. [David Eickhoff, Native Plants Hawaiʻi]

Plant Produces Flowers


leaf Leaf Characteristics

Plant texture

  • Coarse

Leaf Colors

  • Dark Green
  • Medium Green

leaf Pests and Diseases

Additional Pest & Disease Information


leaf Growth Requirements

Water Requirements

  • Moist

Light Conditions

  • Partial sun
  • Shade


  • Organic

leaf Environmental Information

Natural Range

  • Kauaʻi
  • Oʻahu
  • Molokaʻi
  • Lānaʻi
  • Maui
  • Hawaiʻi

Natural Zones (Elevation in feet, Rainfall in inches)

  • 1000 to 1999, 0 to 50 (Dry)
  • 1000 to 1999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 1000 to 1999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 2000 to 2999, 0 to 50 (Dry)
  • 2000 to 2999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 2000 to 2999, Greater than 100 (Wet)


  • Terrestrial

Additional Habitat Information

These are common ferns found in dry to wet forests from 1640 to about 6890 feet.

The var. lamoureuxii is found in the Makawao and Koʻolau Forest Reserves from about 3020 to 6560 feet on East Maui and is considered rare. It has recently recorded from West Maui.

leaf Special Features and Information

General Information

Dryopteris belong to the Dryopteridaceae or Woodfern family with between 200-250 species worldwide.

The Hawaiian Islands is represented by 18 endemic and one indigenous species. [1]


Dryopteris is from the Greek dryos, oak or tree, and pteris, fern in reference to the fact that ferns of this genus are often found in woodlands.

The specific epithet fusco-atra is from the Latin fuscus, dark, dark brown, and atra, black. Daniel Palmer in Hawaiʻi's Ferns and Fern Allies comments: "The namer must have been impressed by the dark scales on this species."

The species spelling is also appears as fuscoatra (unhyphenated).

The varietal name lamoureuxii is named in honor of the late Charles H. Lamoureux (1933-2000), prominent local botanist, professor at the University of Hawaiʻi, and director at Lyon Arboretum.

Hawaiian Name:

ʻIʻi means reddish brown.

Background Information


Additional References

[1] "Moleclar phylogenetics and historical biogeography of Hawaiian Dryopteris (Dryopteridaeae)" by J.M. Geiger & T.A. Ranker, Abstract page.

leafMore Links

Back to Plant List

Plant List