Kadua affinis

leaf Main Plant Information





Hawaiian Names with Diacritics

  • Manono

Hawaiian Names

  • Manono

Common Names

  • Variable starviolet


  • (This is a concise list of synonyms)
  • Gouldia affinis
  • Gouldia angustifolia
  • Gouldia antiqua
  • Gouldia arborescens
  • Gouldia aspera
  • Gouldia bobeoides
  • Gouldia cirrhopetiolata
  • Gouldia congesta
  • Gouldia cordata
  • Gouldia coriacea
  • Gouldia crassicaulis
  • Gouldia degeneri
  • Gouldia elongata
  • Gouldia forbesii
  • Gouldia fosbergii
  • Gouldia glabra
  • Gouldia hathewayi
  • Gouldia hirtella
  • Gouldia hosakae
  • Gouldia kaala
  • Gouldia kapuaensis
  • Gouldia konaensis
  • Gouldia lanaiensis
  • Gouldia lanceolata
  • Gouldia macrocarpa
  • Gouldia macrothyrsa
  • Gouldia munroi
  • Gouldia myrsinoidea
  • Gouldia osteocarpa
  • Gouldia ovata
  • Gouldia parvifolia
  • Gouldia pedunculata
  • Gouldia psuedodichotoma
  • Gouldia pubescens
  • Gouldia purpurea
  • Gouldia quadrangularis
  • Gouldia romanzoffiensis
  • Gouldia rotundifolia
  • Gouldia sambucina
  • Gouldia sandwicensis
  • Gouldia sclerotica
  • Gouldia skottsbergii
  • Gouldia stipulacea
  • Gouldia subcordata
  • Gouldia tenuicaulis
  • Gouldia terminalis
  • Gouldia wawrae
  • Hedyotis chamissoniana
  • Hedyotis chamissonis
  • Hedyotis terminalis
  • Kadua affinis
  • Petesia? coriacea
  • Petesia? terminalis

leaf Plant Characteristics

Distribution Status


Endangered Species Status

No Status

Plant Form / Growth Habit

  • Sprawling Shrub
  • Shrub
  • Tree

Mature Size, Height (in feet)

  • Shrub, Medium, 6 to 10
  • Shrub, Tall, Greater than 10
  • Tree, Small, 15 to 30

Mature Size, Width

Manono is a variable plant but can have a spread of more than 10 feet in larger forms.

Life Span

Long lived (Greater than 5 years)

Landscape Uses

  • Accent
  • Container
  • Hedges
  • Specimen Plant

Additional Landscape Use Information

Because manono (Kadua affinis) is such a variable plant ranging from low shrubs and lianas to small trees (16+ ft.), it is good to inquire as which form you would be getting to suit your landscape needs.

Plant Produces Flowers


leaf Flower Characteristics

Flower Type

Not Showy

Flower Colors

  • Green
  • Purple
  • Yellow

Additional Flower Color Information

Manono has yellowish green or sometimes purple-tinged flowers.

leaf Leaf Characteristics

Plant texture

  • Fine
  • Medium
  • Coarse

Additional Plant Texture Information

The leaves range from under an inch to over 9 inches long.

Leaf Colors

  • Medium Green

leaf Pests and Diseases

Additional Pest & Disease Information

Manono is prone to ants, scale, mealy bugs, and aphids.

leaf Growth Requirements


Fertilize by amending 8-8-8 into the soil. Foliar feed monthly, if the leaves turn yellow treat with a fertilizer for acid loving plants.

Water Requirements

  • Moist

Additional Water Information

Manono have a variety of water needs depending on the origin of the plants.

Soil must be well drained


Light Conditions

  • Partial sun

leaf Environmental Information

Natural Range

  • Kauaʻi
  • Oʻahu
  • Molokaʻi
  • Lānaʻi
  • Maui
  • Hawaiʻi

Natural Zones (Elevation in feet, Rainfall in inches)

  • 150 to 1000, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 150 to 1000, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 1000 to 1999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 1000 to 1999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 2000 to 2999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 2000 to 2999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 3000 to 3999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 3000 to 3999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 4000 to 4999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 4000 to 4999, Greater than 100 (Wet)

Additional Habitat Information

Manono is often a common component of mesic to wet forests, sometimes bogs or mesic shrubland from about 850 to over 6690 feet.

leaf Special Features and Information

General Information

Manono is a member of the very large Coffee family or Rubiaceae of more than 13,000 species throughout the world. The family is well represented in the islands with about 60 species.

The genus Kadua is comprised of 30 species total in the Pacific region and most are represented in the Hawaiian Archipelago with 25 endemic species. Recently a revision of the genus Hedyotis was made and the genus Kadua is accepted for all Hedyotis in the Hawaiian Islands. [1]


Kadua is the oldest generic name for these species and is named in memory of M. Kadua, a native of Ulea, who sailed with Otto von Kotzebue (1787-1846), Baltic German navigator in Russian service, with the purpose of collecting plants. [1,2]

The Latin specific epithet affinis, means neighboring or allied to.

Background Information

Regarding manono (Kadua affinis), one can hardly say that there is a typical representative plant. Perhaps with the exception of ʻōhiʻa, manono is probably the most variable native Hawaiian plant. Testifying to its incredible diversity, over 200 synonymous names have been used for this species! Understandably, then, this knowledgebase will not attempt to list them all but can be referenced in the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaiʻi, by Warren Wagner et. al., Volume 2, pages 1152-1153.

Early Hawaiian Use

The early Hawaiian use of manono was limited since the wood warps and cracks. It was used on occasion though for canoes (waʻa) trimming and rigging.

Additional References

[1] "Resurrection of Genus Kadua for Hedyotidinae (Rubiaceae)" by Edward E. Terrell, page 819.

[2] "A General System of Gardening and Botany, Vol. 3," by George Don, page 533.



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