Kadua centranthoides

leaf Main Plant Information





Hawaiian Names with Diacritics

  • Manono

Hawaiian Names

  • Manono

Common Names

  • Forest starviolet
  • Kilauea hedyotis


  • Hedyotis centranthoides
  • Hedyotis glomerata
  • Hedyotis hookeriana
  • Kadua glomerata

leaf Plant Characteristics

Distribution Status


Endangered Species Status

No Status

Plant Form / Growth Habit

  • Sprawling Shrub

Mature Size, Height (in feet)

  • Shrub, Dwarf, Less than 2
  • Shrub, Small, 2 to 6

Mature Size, Width

Stems can grow to over 6 feet long.

Life Span

Long lived (Greater than 5 years)

Landscape Uses

No data available.

Plant Produces Flowers


leaf Flower Characteristics

Flower Type

Not Showy

Flower Colors

  • Cream
  • Greenish-White
  • White
  • Yellow

Additional Flower Color Information

Flower colors range from white, yellow to greenish-yellow.

Blooming Period

  • Spring
  • Summer
  • May
  • June
  • July
  • August
  • September

Additional Blooming Period and Fruiting Information

Blooming period is based on photos of this manono and may extend prior or beyond these months.

leaf Leaf Characteristics

Plant texture

  • Medium

Leaf Colors

  • Dark Green
  • Medium Green
  • Red

Additional Leaf Color Information

Leaf color ranges from green to dark purplish-green or deep purple.

leaf Pests and Diseases

Additional Pest & Disease Information

Ants, scale, mealybugs, thrips, aphids. Controlling the ants will help control the other pests.

leaf Growth Requirements

Water Requirements

  • Moist
  • Wet

Soil must be well drained


Light Conditions

  • Full sun
  • Partial sun


  • Organic

leaf Environmental Information

Natural Range

  • Kauaʻi
  • Oʻahu
  • Molokaʻi
  • Lānaʻi
  • Maui
  • Hawaiʻi

Natural Zones (Elevation in feet, Rainfall in inches)

  • 1000 to 1999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 1000 to 1999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 2000 to 2999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 2000 to 2999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 3000 to 3999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 3000 to 3999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 4000 to 4999, 50 to 100 (Mesic)
  • 4000 to 4999, Greater than 100 (Wet)


  • Terrestrial

Additional Habitat Information

Manono is found scattered to relatively populations about 1245 to 6300 feet often in open areas in wet forest and margins of bogs, occasionally in mesic forest.

leaf Special Features and Information

General Information

Manono is a member of the very large Coffee family or Rubiaceae of more than 13,000 species throughout the world. The family is well represented in the islands with about 60 species.

The genus Kadua is comprised of 30 species total in the Pacific region and most are represented in the Hawaiian Archipelago with 25 endemic species. Recently a revision of the genus Hedyotis was made and the genus Kadua is accepted for all Hedyotis in the Hawaiian Islands. [2]


Kadua is the oldest generic name for these species and is named in memory of M. Kadua, a native of Ulea, who sailed with Otto von Kotzebue (1787-1846), Baltic German navigator in Russian service, with the purpose of collecting plants. [2,3]

The specific epithet centranthoides is Greek meaning "resembling Centranthus," a genus of about twelve species and known by the vernacular or common name Valerian.

Early Hawaiian Use

The new growth (liko) is leathery, glossy, and dark purple is used in lei work and lasts well. [1]

Modern Use

Used in lei today as it was in early times. [1]

Additional References

[1] "Nā Lei Makamae--The Treasured Lei" by Marie A. McDonald & Paul R. Weissich, pages 90, 161.

[2] "Resurrection of Genus Kadua for Hedyotidinae (Rubiaceae)" by Edward E. Terrell, page 819.

[3] "A General System of Gardening and Botany, Vol. 3," by George Don, page 533.




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This record is as complete as we can generate for this plant profile at this point. Please email nativeplantshawaii@gmail.com if you wish to contribute to the data. Please include sources and references for all data submitted